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MBBS BDS ADMISSIONS 2014 2015 ADMISSION ENTRY TEST FOR UET UNIVERSITY LAHORE, ALL MEDICAL COLLEGE MBBS ENTRY TEST SYLLABUS WITH MARKS DISTRIBUTION, SAMPLE TEST MCQS, SAMPLE PAPERS, BIOLOGY, CHEMISTRY, ENGLISH, 2014-15, FULL DETAILS

SYLLABUS

FOR

ENTRANCE TEST

2014

UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES
LAHORE, PAKISTAN

Sr.# Subject No. of
Questions
1.
PHYSICS 44
2.
CHEMISTRY 58
3.
ENGLISH 30
4.
BIOLOGY 88
TOTAL 220

STRUCTURE OF ENTRANCE TEST PAPER 2014

CONTENTS PAGE#
PHYSICS
Syllabus 1-5
TOS 6
Self Test Questions 7-9
CHEMISTRY
Syllabus 10-21
TOS 22
Self Test Questions 23-28
ENGLISH
Syllabus
29-34
Self Test Questions 35-36
BIOLOGY
Syllabus 37-44
TOS 45
Self Test Questions 46-51

PHYSICS
STRUCTURE OF THE SYLLABUS (2014)
F.Sc. and Non-F.Sc.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Physical Quantities and Units

2. Forces

3. Fluid Dynamics

4. Light

5. Waves

6. Deformation of Solids

7. Ideal Gases

8. Heat and Thermodynamics

9. Electronics

10. Current Electricity

11. Magnetism and Electromagnetism

12. Modern Physics

13. Nuclear Physics

1

1. PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND UNITS:

Learning Outcomes

a) Understand what is physics.
b) Understand that all physical quantities consist of a numerical magnitude and a unit.
c) Recall the following base quantities and their units; mass (kg), length (m), time (s),
current (A), temperature (K), luminous intensity (cd) and amount of substance (mol)
d) Describe and use base units and derived units.
e) Dimensional units of physical quantities.

2. FORCES:

Learning Outcomes

a) Show an understanding the concept of weight.
b) Show an understanding that the weight of a body may be taken as acting at a single
point known as its centre of gravity.
c) Weightlessness in an elevator.
d) Define and apply the moment of force.

3. FLUID DYNAMICS:

Learning Outcomes

a) Concept of viscosity.
b) Understand the terms steady (Laminar, streamline) flow, incompressible flow, non-
viscous flow as applied to the motion of an ideal fluid.
c) Appreciate the equation of continuity.
A1V1 A2V2 for the flow of an ideal and incompressible fluid.
d) Understand Bernoulli’s equation

P
1
2

 v 2 gh Constant
e) Understand that the pressure difference can arise from different rates of flow of a fluid
(Blood flow).

2

4. LIGHT:

Learning Outcomes

a) Understand interference of light.
b) Understand diffraction of light.
c) Describe the phenomenon of diffraction of X-rays by crystals and its use.
d) Understand polarization of light.
e) Concepts of least distance of distinct vision.


Short sightedness, long sightedness.
f) Understand the terms magnifying power and resolving power

( R
1
 min

, R



)

of optical instruments.
g) Derive expressions for magnifying power of simple microscope and compound
microscope.
h) Understand the principle of optical fibres, types and its application.

5. WAVES:

Learning Outcomes

a) Understand the simple harmonic motion with examples.
b) Explain energy in simple harmonic motion.
c) Describe practical examples of free and forced oscillations.
d) Understand the resonance with its applications.
e) Understand and describe Doppler’s effect and its causes. Recognize the application of
Doppler’s effect.
f) Understand Ultrasound with its uses in scanning.
g) Show an understanding speed of sound in different media.
h) Audioable frequency range.

6. DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS:

Learning Outcomes

a) Appreciate deformation caused by a force and that is in one dimension.
b) Understand tensile or compressive deformation.
c) Understand the terms stress, stain young’s modulus and Bulk modulus.
d) Energy stored in deformed material.

3

7. IDEAL GAS:

Learning Outcomes

a) Recall and use equation of state of an ideal gas PV nRT .
b) State the basic assumptions of Kinetic theory of gases.
c) Derive gas laws on the basis of kinetic theory of gases.

d) Understand pressure of gas P
2
3

N 0
1
2

mv 2 .

8. HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS:

Learning Outcomes

a) Understand the term thermal equilibrium.
b) Concepts of temperature and temperature scales.
c) Compare the relative advantage and disadvantage of thermocouple, thermometer
and mercury thermometer.
d) Understand laws of thermodynamics.
e) Show an understanding the term internal energy.

9. ELECTRONICS:

Learning Outcomes

a) Logic gates:
 OR gate, AND gate, NOT Gate, NOR gate and NAND gate.
b) Understand the basic principle of Cathode Ray Oscilloscope and appreciate its use.

10.

CURRENT ELECTRICITY:

Learning Outcomes

a) State Ohm’s law and solve problems V= IR
b) Combinations of resistors.
c) Show an understanding of a capacitor.
d) Combinations of capacitors.

4

11.

MAGNETISM AND ELECTROMAGNETISM:

Learning Outcomes

a)

Magnetic field due to current in
i) Straight wire
ii) Solenoid
b) Understand Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

12.

MODERN PHYSICS:

Learning Outcomes

a) Principle of production of X-rays by electron bombardment on metal target.
b) Describe main features of X-ray tube.
c) Use of X-rays in imaging internal body structures.
d) Show an understanding of the purpose of computed tomography or CT scanning.
e) Show an understanding of the principles of CT scanning.
f) Understand laser principle and its type (Helium – Neon Laser).
g) Describe the application of laser in medicine and industry.

13.

NUCLEAR PHYSICS:

Learning Outcomes

a) Understand Radioactivity.
b) Understand Radioactive decay.
c) Radio Isotopes and their biological uses.
d) Nuclear radiation detectors


GM tube, Wilson cloud chamber.
e) Radiation hazards and biological effect of radiation.

5

Sr. No Topic MCQs
1. Physical Quantities and Units 02
2. Forces 02
3. Fluid Dynamics 03
4. Light 04
5. Waves 04
6. Deformation of Solids 02
7. Ideal Gases 02
8. Heat and Thermodynamics 03
9. Electronics 02
10. Current Electricity 03
11. Magnetism and Electromagnetism 03
12. Modern Physics 07
13. Nuclear Physics 07
Total 44

Table of Specification (PHYSICS-2014)
F.Sc. and Non-F.Sc.

6

SELF TEST QUESTIONS (PHYSICS)

Choose single best option

Q.1

At the present time, how many frontiers of fundamental science are there:
A) Two
B) Three
C) One
D) Four
Q.2 The unit of pressure in base unit is:
A) Kg ms-2
B) Kg ms2
C) Kg m-1 s-2
D) Kg m-1 s-1

Q.3

The physical quantity which produces angular acceleration in body is called:
A) Force
B) Momentum
C) Centripetal force
D) Torque

Q.4

A man in an elevator ascending with an acceleration will conclude that his weight
has:
A) Decreased
B) Increased
C) Reduced to zero
D) Remained constant

Q.5

The Law of conservation of mass gives us the equation of:
A) Stoke’s law
B) Continuity
C) Bernoulli’s theorem
D) Torricelli’s theorem

Q.6

1 torr is equal to :
A) 135.3 Nm-2
B) 133.3 Nm-2
C) 132.3 Nm-2
D) 130.3 Nm-2

Q.7

Viscosity of liquids with rise in temperature:
A) Increases
B) Decreases
C) Remains the same
D) First decreases then increases

Q.8

The phenomenon of polarization of light reveals that light waves are:
A) Extremely short waves
B) Longitudinal waves
C) Transverse electromagnetic waves
D) Long wavelength waves

Q.9

Diffraction of X-rays by crystals show that:
A) X-rays are just like visible light
B) X-rays are electromagnetic waves
C) X-rays have very short wavelength
D) The intensity of X-rays is high

Q.10

The image of an object 7mm high is only 1.4 cm high. The magnification produced by
lens is:
A) 0.7
B) 1
C) 2
D) 0.2
Q.11 Infra-red signals travel through optical fibres of wavelength about:
A) 2 μm
B) 1.3 μm
C) 1.5 μm
D) 1.9 μm

Q.12

Total energy of a body executing simple harmonic motion is directly proportional to:
A) The amplitude
B) Square root of amplitude
C) Reciprocal of amplitude
D) Square of amplitude

Q.13

The wavelength of the wave produced in a microwave oven is:
A) 15 cm
B) 13 cm
C) 12 cm
D) 10 cm

Q.14

The frequencies of ultrasonic waves are:
A) In audible range
B) Greater than 20 kHz
C) Lower than 20 kHz
D) Greater than 20 Hertz
Q.15 A train is approaching a station at 90 Kmh-1 sounding a whistle of frequency 1000Hz.
What will be the apparent frequency of the whistle as heard by a listener sitting on
the platform?
A) 1079.4 Hz
B) 1179.4 Hz

7
C) 1078.5 Hz
D) 1178.5 Hz

Q.16

Mathematical notation for “ NAND” gate is:

__ __
A) X A B C) X A. B
________
B) X A . B D) X A . B

Q.17

Heat leaves a system; it is taken as:
A) Positive
B) Negative
C) Neither positive nor negative
D) Zero

Q.18

First Law of Thermodynamics is the Law of:
A) Conservation of momentum
B) Conservation of Energy
C) Conservation of mass
D) Conservation of velocity

Q.19

Increase in temperature is due to increase in:
A) Translational K.E
B) Rotational K.E
C) Gravitational K.E
D) Vibrational K.E

Q.20

V

2 N
3 P

<

1
2

mv2 > represents:
A) Boyle’s law.
B) Ideal gas
C) Charles law
D) Gas general equation

Q.21

The dimension of strain is:
A) [ T ]
B) [ M ]
C) [ LT-1 ]
D) None.

Q.22

The ratio of applied stress to volumetric strain is called:
A) Young’s modulus
B) Shear modulus
C) Bulk modulus
D) Modulus of elasticity

Q.23

Beam of electron can be called as:
A) Positive rays
B) Cathode rays
C) Cosmic rays
D) X-rays
Q.24 Pressure of gas given by:

A)

P
2
3

N<
1
2

mv2 >

C)

P
2 N
3 V

<
1
2

mv2 >
B) P = Constant K.E
D)
1
P No
3

<
1
2

mv2 >
Q.25 ‘OR’ and ‘AND’ gates have:
A) Two outputs
B) Single output
C) Three output
D) No output

Q.26

Shunt Resistance is called:
A) Low resistance
B) High resistance
C) Bypass resistance
D) Specific resistance

Q.27

One Coulomb per second is equal to:
A) One volt
B) One ampere
C) One Walt
D) One ohm
Q.28 Ohm is defined an:
A) VC-1
B) VA-1
C) CV-1
D) AV-1

Q.29

A current carrying conductor is surrounded by:
A) Magnetic field
B) Electric field
C) Conservative field
D) Gravitational field

Q.30

Force on a charged particle having charge ‘ q ‘ moving with velocity ‘ v ‘ parallel to
magnetic field of intensity ‘ B ‘ is given by:
A) F = q vb
B) F = vb/q

8
C) F = q v/B
D) F = 0

Q.31

In X-ray tube electrons are accelerated by applying a:
A) High current between anode and
cathode
B) High voltage between anode and
cathode
C) High stopping potential between
anode and cathode
D) High power between anode and
cathode

Q.32

In medical science which radiations are used to locate fractures or cracks in bones or
teeth:
A) Infra-red radiations
B) Gamma radiations
C) X-rays
D) Ultra violet radiations

Q.33

The minimum wavelength of X-ray produced if 10kvp Potential difference is applied
across the anode and cathode of the tube is:
A) 1.24 x 10-10m C) 124 x 10-10m
B) 12.4 x 10

10 m D) 0.124 x 10-10m

Q.34

Laser light is highly:
A) Directional
B) Scattered
C) Unpolarized
D) Non- directional

Q.35

A light beam from a high power laser when focused by a lens can produce:
A) A high temperature
B) A low temperature
C) A moderate temperature
D) A very low temperature

Q.36

A laser beam can be employed safely to weld a detached:
A) Bone of body
B) Finger of hand
C) Retina of eye
D) Tooth

Q.37

CT scanning is the abbreviated name of:
A) Computed Technology
B) Computed Tomography
C) Computerized Technique
D) Classical Technique

Q.38

One curie is equal to:
A) 3.70 x 1010 atoms decay in one
second
B) 3.70 x 108 atoms decay in one
second
C) 3.70 x 106 atoms decay in one
second
D) 3.70 x 104 atoms decay in one
second

Q.39

In cloud chamber, each track corresponds to the passage of:
A) One group of α particles
B) One α particle
C) Two α particles
D) Three α particles

Q.40

In β – particle emission its mass of nucleus remains practically the same while its
charge changes by:
A) One unit
B) Two unit
C) Three unit
D) Four unit
Q.41 A nuclide 220R84 decay to a new nuclide S by two α – emissions and two β emissions;
the nuclide S is:
A) 218S84
B) 216S84
C) 212S82
D) 216S82
Q.42 Beta particles are fast moving particles, called:
A) Protons
B) Electrons
C) Neutrons
D) α-Particles
Q.43 Cobalt-60 is used to:
A) Cure blood cancer
B) Cure bone cancer
C) Cure thyroid cancer
D) Cure tumor

Q.44

In radioactivity, the rate of decay:
A) Can be increased by magnetic field
B) Can be decreased by magnetic field

9
C) Can be kept constant by electric
field
D) Is not effected by electric or
magnetic field

CHEMISTRY
STRUCTURE OF THE SYLLABUS (2014)
F.Sc. and Non-F.Sc.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. Physical Chemistry
1. Fundamental Concepts
2. States of Matter
3. Atomic Structure
4. Chemical Bonding
5. Chemical Energetics
6. Solutions
7. Electrochemistry
8. Chemical Equilibrium
9. Reaction Kinetics
B. Inorganic Chemistry
1. Periods
2. Groups
3. Transition elements
4. Elements of Biological Importance
C. Organic Chemistry
1. Fundamental Principles
2. Hydrocarbon
3. Alkyl Halides
4. Alcohols and Phenols
5. Aldehydes and Ketones
6. Carboxylic Acid
7. Amino Acids
8. Macromolecules
9. Environmental Chemistry

10

C

A. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

1. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Define relative atomic, isotopic, molecular and formula masses, based on the

12
scale.
b) Explain mole in terms of the Avogadro’s constant.
c) Apply mass spectrometric technique in determining the relative atomic mass of an
element using the mass spectral data provided.
d) Calculate empirical and molecular formulae, using combustion data.
e) Understand stoichiometric calculations using mole concept involving.
i) Reacting masses
ii) Volume of gases

2. STATES OF MATTER:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Understate gaseous state with reference to:
i) Postulates of kinetic molecular theory
ii) Deviation of real gases from ideal behavior
iii) Gas laws: Boyle’s law, Charles law, Avogadro’s law and gas equation (PV=nRT)
and calculations involving gas laws.
iv)Deviation of real gases from ideal behaviour at low temperature and high pressure
v) Causes of deviation from ideal behaviour
vi)Conditions necessary for gasses to approach ideal behaviour
b) Discuss liquid state with reference to:
 Evaporation, vapour pressure, boiling and hydrogen bonding in water
c) Explain the lattice structure of a crystalline solid with special emphasis on:
i) Giant ionic structure, as in sodium chloride.
ii) Simple molecular, as in iodine
iii) Giant molecular, as in graphite; diamond; silicon(IV) oxide
iv)Hydrogen-bonded, as in ice
v) Metallic as in Cu and Fe.
d) Outline the importance of hydrogen bonding to the physical properties of substances,
including NH3, H2O, C2H5OH and ice.
e) Suggest from quoted physical data the type of structure and bonding present in a
substance

11

3. ATOMIC STRUCTURE:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Identify and describe the proton, neutron and electron in terms of their relative
charges and relative masses
b) Discuss the behaviour of beams of protons, neutrons and electrons in electric fields
c) Calculate the distribution of mass and charges within an atom from the given data
d) Deduce the number of protons, neutrons and electrons present in both atoms and
ions for a given proton and nucleon numbers/charge.
e)
i) Describe the contribution of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei in terms of
proton number and nucleon number
ii) Distinguish between isotopes on the basis of different numbers of neutrons
present
f) Describe the number and relative energies of the s, p and d orbitals for the principal
quantum numbers 1, 2 and 3 and also the 4s and 4p orbitals
g) Describe the shapes of s and p orbitals
h) State the electronic configuration of atoms and ions given the proton number/charge
i) Explain:
i) Ionization energy
ii) The factors influencing the ionization energies of elements
iii) The trends in ionization energies across a Period and down a Group of the Periodic
Table

4. CHEMICAL BONDING:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Characterise electrovalent (ionic) bond as in sodium chloride and Calcium oxide.
b) Use the ‘dot-and-cross’ diagrams to explain
i) Covalent bonding, as in hydrogen(H2); oxygen(O2); chlorine(Cl2); hydrogen
chloride; carbon dioxide; methane and ethene
ii) Co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonding, as in the formation of the ammonium ion
and in H3N+– -BF3.
c) Describe the shapes and bond angles in molecules by using the qualitative model of
electron-pair repulsion theory up to 4 pairs of electron including bonded electron pair
and lone pair around central atom.
d) Describe covalent bonding in terms of orbital overlap, giving σ and Π bonds
e) Explain the shape of, and bond angles in ethane, ethene and benzene molecules in
terms of σ and Π bonds

12

f) Describe hydrogen bonding, using ammonia and water as simple examples of
molecules containing N-H and O-H groups
g) Explain the terms bond energy, bond length and bond polarity and use them to
compare the reactivities of covalent bonds
h) Describe intermolecular forces (Van der Waal’s forces), based on permanent and
induced dipoles, as in CHCl3, Br2 and in liquid noble gases
i) Describe metallic bonding in terms of a lattice of positive ions surrounded by mobile
electrons
j) Describe, interpret and/or predict the effect of different types of bonding (ionic
bonding; covalent bonding; hydrogen bonding; Van der Waal’s forces and metallic
bonding) on the physical properties of substances
k) Deduce the type of bonding present in a substance from the given information

5. CHEMICAL ENERGETICS:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Understand concept of energy changes during chemical reactions with examples of
exothermic and endothermic reactions.
b) Explain and use the terms:
i) Enthalpy change of reaction and standard conditions, with particular reference to:
Formation; combustion; hydration; solution; neutralization and atomisation
ii) Bond energy (ΔH positive, i.e. bond breaking)
iii) Lattice energy (ΔH negative, i.e. gaseous ions to solid lattice)
c) Find heat of reactions/neutralization from experimental results using mathematical
relationship.
∆H=mc∆T
d) Explain, in qualitative terms, the effect of ionic charge and of ionic radius on the
numerical magnitude of lattice energy
e) Apply Hess’s Law to construct simple energy cycles, and carry out calculations
involving such cycles and relevant energy terms, with particular reference to:
i) Determining enthalpy changes that cannot be found by direct experiment, e.g. an
enthalpy change of formation from enthalpy changes of combustion
ii) Average bond energies
iii) Born-Haber cycles (including ionisation energy and electron affinity)

13

6. SOLUTIONS:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Describe and explain following concentration units of solutions
i) Percentage composition
ii) Molarity (M)
iii) Molality (m)
iv)Mole fraction (X)
v) Parts of million (ppm)
b) Understand concept and applications of colligative properties such as:
i) Elevation of boiling point
ii) Depression of freezing point
iii) Osmotic pressure

7. ELECTROCHEMISTRY:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Explain the industrial processes of the electrolysis of brine, using a diaphragm cell
b) Describe and explain redox processes in terms of electron transfer and/or of changes
in oxidation number
c) Define the terms:
 Standard electrode (redox) potential and Standard cell potential
d) Describe the standard hydrogen electrode as reference electrode
e) Describe methods used to measure the standard electrode potentials of metals or
non-metals in contact with their ions in aqueous solution
f) Calculate a standard cell potential by combining two standard electrode potentials
g) Use standard cell potentials to:
i) Explain/deduce the direction of electron flow in the external circuit.
ii) Predict the feasibility of a reaction
h) Construct redox equations using the relevant half-equations
i) State the possible advantages of developing the H2/O2 fuel cell
j) Predict and to identify the substance liberated during electrolysis from the state of
electrolyte (molten or aqueous), position in the redox series (electrode potential) and
concentration

14

8. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Explain, in terms of rates of the forward and reverse reactions, what is meant by a
reversible reaction and dynamic equilibrium
b) State Le Chatelier’s Principle and apply it to deduce qualitatively the effects of
changes in temperature, concentration or pressure, on a system at equilibrium
c) Deduce whether changes in concentration, pressure or temperature or the presence
of a catalyst affect the value of the equilibrium constant for a reaction
d) Deduce expressions for equilibrium constants in terms of concentrations, Kc, and
partial pressures, Kp
e) Calculate the values of equilibrium constants in terms of concentrations or partial
pressures from appropriate data
f) Calculate the quantities present at equilibrium, given appropriate data
g) Describe and explain the conditions used in the Haber process.
h) Understand and use the Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases
i) Explain qualitatively the differences in behaviour between strong and weak acids and
bases and the pH values of their aqueous solutions in terms of the extent of
dissociation
j) Explain the terms pH; Ka; pKa; Kw and use them in calculations
k) Calculate [H+(aq)] and pH values for strong and weak acids and strong bases
l) Explain how buffer solutions control pH
m) Calculate the pH of buffer solutions from the given appropriate data
n) Show understanding of, and use, the concept of solubility product, Ksp
o) Calculate Ksp from concentrations and vice versa
p) Show understanding of the common ion effect

15

9. REACTION KINETICS:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Explain and use the terms: rate of reaction; activation energy; catalysis; rate
equation; order of reaction; rate constant; half-life of a reaction; rate-determining
step
b) Explain qualitatively, in terms of collisions, the effect of concentration changes on the
rate of a reaction
c) Explain that, in the presence of a catalyst, a reaction has a different mechanism, i.e.
one of lower activation energy
d) Describe enzymes as biological catalysts (proteins) which may have specific activity
e) Construct and use rate equations of the form
Rate = k[A]m[B]n
with special emphasis on:
i) Deducing the order of a reaction by the initial rates method
ii) Justifying, for zero- and first-order reactions, the order of reaction from
concentration-time graphs
iii) Verifying that a suggested reaction mechanism is consistent with the observed
kinetics
iv)Predicting the order that would result from a given reaction mechanism (and vice
versa)
v) Calculating an initial rate using concentration data
f) Show understanding that the half-life of a first-order reaction is independent of initial
concentration and use the half-life to calculate order of reaction.
g) Calculate the rate constant from the given data
h) Name a suitable method for studying the rate of a reaction, from given information

B. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1. PERIODS:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

Discuss the variation in the physical properties of elements belonging to period 2 and 3
and to describe and explain the periodicity in the following physical properties of
elements.
a) Atomic radius
b) Ionic radius
c) Melting point
d) Boiling point
e) Electrical conductivity
f) Ionization energy

16

2. GROUPS:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

Describe and explain the variation in the properties of group II, IV and VII elements
from top to bottom with special emphasis on:
a) Reactions of group-II elements with oxygen and water
b) Characteristics of oxides of carbon and silicon
c) Properties of halogens and uses of chlorine in water purification and as bleaching
agent
d) Uses of Nobel gases (group VIII)

3. TRANSITION ELEMENTS:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

Discuss the chemistry of transition elements of 3-d series with special emphasis on:

a) Electronic configuration
b) Variable oxidation states
c) Use as a catalyst
d) Formation of complexes
e) Colour of transition metal complexes

4. ELEMENTS OF BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Describe the inertness of Nitrogen
b) Manufacture of Ammonia by Haber process
c) Discuss the preparation of Nitric acid and nitrogenous fertilizers
d) Describe the presence of Suphur dioxide in the atmosphere which causes acid rain
e) Describe the manufacture of Sulphuric acid by contact method

17

C. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Classify the organic compounds
b) Explain the types of bond fission, homolytic and heterolytic
c) Discuss the types of organic reactions; Polar and free radical
d) Discuss the types of reagents; nucleophile, electrophile and free radicals
e) Explain isomerism; structural and cis-trans
f) Describe and explain condensed structural formula, displayed and skeletal formula
g) Discuss nomenclature of organic compounds with reference to IUPAC names of
Alkanes, Alkenes, Alcohols and Acids

2. HYDROCARBON:
In this topic, candidate should be able to:

Describe the chemistry of Alkanes with emphasis on
a) Combustion
b) Free radical substitution including mechanism
Discuss the chemistry of Alkenes with emphasis on
a) Preparation of alkenes by elimination reactions
i) Dehydration of alcohols
ii) Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl halide
b) Reaction of Alkenes such as
i) Catalytic hydrogenation
ii) Halogenation (Br2 addition to be used as a test of an alkene)
iii) Hydration of alkenes
iv)Reaction with HBr with special reference to Markownikoff’s rule
v) Oxidation of alkenes using Bayer’s reagent (cold alkaline KMnO4) and using hot
concentrated acidic KMnO4 for cleavage of double bond
vi)Polymerization of ethene
Discuss chemistry of Benzene with examples
a) Structure of benzene showing the delocalized Π-orbital which causes stability of
benzene
b) Electrolphillic substitution reactions of benzene
i) Nitration including mechanism
ii) Halogenation
iii) Friedel Craft’s reaction

18

3. ALKYL HALIDES:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Discuss importance of halogenoalkanes in everyday life with special use of CFCs,
halothanes, CCl4, CHCl3 and Teflon
b) Reaction of alkyl halides such as:
SN-reactions, (Reactions of alcohols with aqueous KOH, KCN in alcohol and with
aqueous NH3)
Elimination reaction with alcoholic KOH to give alkenes.

4. ALCOHOLS AND PHENOLS:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

Discus Alcohols with reference to
a) Classification of alcohols into primary, secondary and tertiary
b) Preparation of ethanol by fermentation process
c) Reaction of alcohol with
i) K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4
ii) PCl5
iii) Na-metal
iv)Alkaline aqueous Iodine
v) Esterification
vi)Dehydration

Phenols

a) Discuss reactions of phenol with:
i) Bromine ii) HNO3
b) Explain the relative acidity of water, ethanol and phenol

19

5. ALDEHYDES AND KETONES:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Describe the structure of aldehyde and ketones
b) Discuss preparation of aldehydes and ketones by oxidation of alcohols
c) Discuss following reactions of aldehydes and ketones
i) Common to both


2,4-DNPH
HCN
ii) Reactions in which Aldehydes differs from ketones


Oxidation with K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4, Tollen’s reagent and Fehling solution
Reduction with sodium boron hydride
iii) Reaction which show presence of CH3CO group in aldehydes and ketones
 Triiodomethane test (Iodo form test) using alkaline aqueous iodine.

6. CARBOXYLIC ACID:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Show preparation of ethanoic acid by oxidation of ethanol or by the hydrolysis of
CH3CN
b) Discuss the reactions of ethanoic acid with emphasis on:
i) Salt formation
ii) Esterification
iii) Acid chloride formation
iv)Amide formation
c) Hydrolysis of amide in basic and acidic medium
d) Describe the strength of organic acids relative to chloro substituted acids

7. AMINO ACIDS:

In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Describe the general structure of α-amino acids found in proteins
b) Classify the amino acids on the basis of nature of R-group
c) Describe what is meant by essential amino acids
d) Understand peptide bond formation and hydrolysis of polypeptides/protein

20

8. MACROMOLECULES:

In this topic, candidate should be able to describe and explain

a) Addition polymers such as polyethene, polypropene, polystyrene and PVC.
b) Condensation polymers such as polyesters, nylon
c) Structure of proteins
d) Chemistry of carbohydrates
e) Chemistry of lipids
f) Enzymes
g) Structure and function of nucleic acid (DNA & RNA)

9. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY:

In this topic, candidate should be able to

a) Understand causes of water pollution
b) Discuss disposal of solid wastes
c) Understand chemistry and causes of
i) Smog
ii) Acid rain
iii) Ozone layer

21

Topic MCQs
A. Physical Chemistry
1. Fundamental concepts 02
2. States of matter 02
3. Atomic structure 02
4. Chemical bonding 02
5. Chemical energetics 02
6. Solutions 02
7. Electrochemistry 02
8. Chemical Equilibrium 02
9. Reaction kinetics 02
B. Inorganic Chemistry
1. Periods 02
2. Groups 02
3. Transition elements 02
4. Elements of biological importance 04
C. Organic Chemistry
1. Fundamental principles 02
2. Hydrocarbon 02
3. Alkyl halides 02
4. Alcohols and Phenols 04
5. Aldehydes and Ketones 03
6. Carboxylic acid 03
7. Amino acids 06
8. Macromolecules 06
9. Environmental chemistry 02
Total 58

Table of Specification (CHEMISTRY-2014)
F.Sc. and Non-F.Sc.

22

B) 6.022×10
B) 2.45×10

SELF TEST QUESTIONS (CHEMISTRY)

Choose single best option

Q.1

The mass spectrum of lead is shown:

Y

1.5

23.6

22.6

52.3

X
204 206 207 208

What quantities are represented by X-axis and Y-axis?

X-axis

Y-axis
A)
B)
C)
D)
Atomic number
Mass number
Mass number
Atomic number
Relative abundance
Atomic number
Height of peak
Mass number

Q.2

Number of atoms of oxygen in 90g of glucose is (C=12, H=1, O=16):
A) 3.011×1023
23
C) 6.022×1024
D) 1.8×1024

Q.3

A mixture of 20% NH3, 55% H2 and 25% N2 by volume has a pressure of
9.8x104Nm-2. What is the partial pressure of NH3 in Nm-2?
A) 1.96×104 C) 2.92×104
4 D) 4.90×104

Q.4

Density of water (H2O) is maximum at:
A) 1000C
B) 00C

C) 40C
D) 140C
Q.5

Q.6
How many total number of unpaired electrons are shown
configuration of Cr:
A) 3
C) 5
B) 4
D) 6

Energy of s, p and d sub-shells is in the order:
A) s>p>d
C) d>p>s
B) p>s>d
D) s>p<d
in the electronic

Q.7

Hydrogen bonding plays a very important role in stabilizing various structures. In
which of the following case hydrogen bonding is not involved?
A) Structure of ice
B) Secondary structure of protein
C) Solid state of iodine
D) Double helix structure of DNA

Q.8

The shape of SnCl2 as predicted by valence shell electron pair repulsion theory is:
A) Linear
B) Bent
C) Tetrahedral
D) Triangular pyramidal

Q.9

A correct equation for the enthalpy change of formation of NH3(g) is:
A) NH4Cl(s)
B) N2(g) + 3H2(g)
NH3(g) + HCl(g)
2NH3(g)
C) 1 N2(g) +
2
3 H2(g)
2
NH3(g)
D) N2O(g) + 4H2(g) 2NH3(g) + H2O(l)
Q.10 Boiling point of water is 1000C. To a sample of 500g of water 3g of urea (NH2)2CO are
added. The boiling point of solution is expected to be (N=14, C=12, O=16, H=1):
A) 1000C
B) 100.0520C

23
C) 99.520C
D) 99.000C

Q.11

The mole fraction of methanol in a solution containing 90g water, 92g ethanol and
96g methanol is (C=12, O=16, H=1):
A) 0.2
B) 0.3
C) 0.5
D) 1.0

Q.12

The relevant Eo values for 3 half cells are:

Mn3+ +

Fe3+ +

Co3+ +

e-

e-

e-

Mn2+

Fe2+

Co2+

Eo =+1.49V

Eo =+0.77V

Eo =-0.28V

Which is the strongest oxidizing agent?
A) Mn3+
B) Fe2+
C) Co2+
D) Mn2+

Q.13

Sulphuric acid is manufactured by contact process. One stage in the contact process
involves the reaction between sulphur dioxide and oxygen.

2SO2(g) + O2(g)

2SO3(g) ;H= -197KJ-1mol

Which statement about this step is true?
A) High temperature favours the
formation of SO3
B) High pressure favours the
formation of SO3
C) No catalyst is used in this step
D) This process is carried out at 2000C

Q.14

Kp and Kc for a gaseous reversible chemical reaction may be same or different. Select
the reaction for which the two constants have same numerical value:

A) N2 + 3H2

B) PCl5

C) N2 + O2

D) 2SO3

2NH3

PCl3 + Cl2

2NO

2SO2 + O2

Q.15

The oxidation of Iodine ion by H2O2 takes place according to the equation,

H2O2(aq) + 2H3O+(aq) + 2I-(aq)

I2(aq) +4H2O(l)

The rate equation may be written as:

Rate = k[H2O2]x [H3O+]y [I-]z

This reaction takes place in three steps:

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3

H2O2 + I-
IO- + H3O+
HIO + H3O+ + I-

IO- + H2O
HIO + H2O
I2 +2H2O

What is the value of x, y and z if step 1 is the rate determining step:
x y z
A) 1 1 1
B) 1
C) 1
D) 2
0
2
1
1
0
1

24

[A] [B] Initial
Rate(atm
-1 min )
0.009 0.001 0.1
0.018 0.002 0.4
0.018 0.001 0.2
0.009 0.002 0.2

Q.16

States of reaction were measured at different initial concentration of reactants A and
B. Data collected is given below in tabular form:

Select the rate expression that corresponds to the data:
A) Rate [A][B] C) Rate [A]2[B]
B) Rate [A][B]
2 D) Rate [A]2[B]2

Q.17

The periodic variation in a physical property of elements with proton number 1 to 60
is shown in the figure below:

Which property is shown in the figure?
A) Melting point
B) Atomic radius
C) Boiling point
D) First ionisation energy

Q.18

Four elements of period-2 are given, select the element with highest first ionization
energy:
A) B
B) C
C) N
D) O

Q.19

An
i
ii
iii

element of group IV shows the following properties:
It is high melting.
It is lubricant.
It is used as an electrical conductor.

What could be the substance?
A) Silicon
B) Graphite
C) Tin
D) Lead

Q.20

Disinfection of water by chlorine is avoided if organic matter like phenol or humic
acid is present in water. It is due to the formation of toxic and carcinogenic products
with chlorine. Chlorine combines with humic acid to form:
A) Chloramines
B) Nitrogen trichloride

25
C) Chloroform
D) Carbon tetrachloride

λ (nm)
Absorbed
Colour of complex
400 Green-Yellow
450 Yellow
490 Red
580 Blue
650 Green

Q.21

Visible spectroscopy is used to relate colour of a complex and the wavelength of
absorption. The relation between absorbed wavelength and observed colour is shown
below:

The visible spectrum of a complex is shown. What is the colour of complex observed?

A) Green-Yellow
B) Yellow

C) Blue
D) Red

Q.22

Transition element complexes show colour. The colour shown by different elements is
different due to:
A) Different number of shells
B) Energy difference of d-orbitals
varies with nature of ligand
C) Absorbance of same wavelength
from visible light
D) Different geometry of complexes

Q.23

What is not the use of H2SO4:
A) Paint and pigments
B) Detergents
C) Food preservation
D) Dye stuff

Q.24

Fertility of acidic soil is restored by adding:
A) Lime
B) Caustic soda
C) Baking soda
D) Milk of magnesia

Q.25

Which pair of the following compounds is optically active:
i.
ii.
iii.
H2N—CH2—CO2H
HOCH2—CH2—CO2H
CH3—CH(OH)—CO2H

HO

iv.

HO

CH—CH2—NH—CH3

OH

A) 1 and 2
B) 2 and 3

C) 3 and 4
D) 1 and 4

Q.26

Which one of the following reagents is not an electrophile:
A) NO2+
B) CH3+

26
C) SO3
D) CH3OH

OH +

Q.27

When ethene reacts with bromine in the presence of a little NaCl, many electrophilic
addition products are formed. Which of the following is not a possible product:
A) CH2—CH2

Br

Br

B) CH2—CH2

Br

OH

C) CH2—CH2

Br

Cl

D) CH2—CH2

Cl

OH

Q.28

Chlorination of methane in the presence of sunlight involves mechanism of:
A) Electrophilic substitution
B) Free radical substitution
C) Free radical addition
D) Free radical alkylation

Q.29

Alkaline hydrolysis of bromoethane takes place by SN2 mechanisms as given below:

CH3

CH3

CH3

δ+CH2—Brδ-
OH——C——-Br

H
H
OH—CH2 + Br-

Intermediate

What is charge on the intermediate?
A) +2
B) +1
C) -1
D) -2

Q.30

Nucleophilic substitution of tertiary alkyl halide gives tertiary alcohol. What is the
type of this reaction:
A) SN1
B) SN2

Cl

OH

Cl
C) Addition-elimination
D) Elimination-addition
Q.31 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol is strongest antiseptic present in Dettol. Which of the

Cl
following reagent is suitable for its preparation from phenol:
A) PCl5
B) SOCl2
C) HCl
D) Cl2

Q.32

Rectified spirit contains 95% ethanol in water. It is converted to absolute alcohol by:
A) Fractional distillation
B) Filtration
C) Treating with lime
D) Steam distillation

Q.33

Vanillin is a constituent of the vanilla bean and has the structure:

OH

OCH3

(Vanillin)
CHO

Which of the following reagent will not react with vanillin?
A) 2,4-Dinitrophenyl hydrazine
B) [Ag(NH3)2]+ (Tollen’s reagent)
C) Br2 in CCl4
D) Aqueous NaOH + I2

Q.34

Acetaldehyde and acetone can be distinguished by:
A) Tollen’s test
B) Iodoform test

27
C) Bayer’s test
D) 2,4 DNPH test

Q.35

2-hydroxy propanoic acid can be prepared in the following two steps starting from
ethanal:

Step 1

Step 2
CH3—CHO CH3—CH—CN

OH
CH3—CH—CO2H

OH
What is the reagent and condition for the two steps?
A) HCN, Acid hydrolysis
B) NaCN in alcohol, oxidation with
H2O2
C) HCN, basic hydrolysis
D) NaCN in alcohol, reduction Sn+HCl
Q.36 Highest acid strength in aqueous medium is associated with:
A) CH3COOH
B) ClCH2COOH
C) Cl2CHCOOH
D) CH3—CH2—COOH

Q.37

20 α-amino acids found in protein are bifunctional compounds having at least a
carboxylic acid group and an amino group. Which of the following α-amino acid has
the secondary amino group in its structure?
A) Valine
B) Alanine
C) Proline
D) Glycine

Q.38

On hydrolysis, protein yield amino acids. In all proteins about 20 different amino
acids are found. Which is not a characteristic property of these 20 amino acids?
A) All are optically active
B) Those optically active have L-
configuration
C) Proline has secondary amino group
at 2-position
D) They decompose before melting
Q.39 When an alkali is added to the aqueous solution of an amino acid, net charge on a
molecule of amino acid is:
A) +ve
B) –ve
C) Zero
D) May be +ve or -ve
Q.40 A reaction of an addition polymer is shown:

What is the structure of the monomer?

A)

B)

C)

D)

CH2—CH3

CH=CH2

C Ξ CH

CH=CH

Q.41

Which of the following functional groups is present in fats?
A) Carboxylic acid
B) Aldehyde or ketone
C) Alcohol
D) Ester
Q.42 Starch is a mixture of two polysaccharides, amylase and amylopectin. Amylase has
linear structure where as amylopectin is branched. In amylopectin, branching is due
to:
A) α-1,4 glycosidic linkage
B)-1,4 glycosidic linkage
C) α-1,6 glycosidic linkage
D)-1,6 glycosidic linkage
Q.43 Natural rain water has a pH of 5.6. What is the pH of the acid rain?
A) 1-2
B) 6-7
C) 8-9
D) 4-5
Q.44 Four statements regarding the characteristics of ozone are given, select the
INCORRECT:
A) Ozone is produced in most of the
tropical regions
B) In polar regions it causes various
health problems

28
C) It reduces the durability of paint
D) It is useful to plants

28. Amazon
29. Ambulatory
30. Ameliorate
31. Amenities
32. Amorphous
33. Ampere
34. Analogue
35. Anaphylactic
36. Aneurysm
37. Angina
38. Anomaly
39. Anomie
40. Antagonist
41. Antibody
42. Apocryphal
43. Apprehension
44. Aquaplane
45. Aquifer
46. Arbiter
47. Arboreal
48. Arcane
49. Archives
50. Argosy
51. Aria
52. Armada
53. Articulated
54. Artifice

1.A Acupuncture
2. Aberration
3. Abnegate
4. Aboriginal
5. Absolution
6. Abstruse
7. Acclimate
8. Accolade
9. Accrue
10. Acquiesce
11. Actuary
12. Acumen
13. Adage
14. Adamantine
15. Addled
16. Admonition
17. Adonis
18. Adroitness
19. Aerobic- exercise
20. Aerodynamic
21. Affect
22. Affinity
23. Afflatus
24. Akimbo
25. Alacrity
26. Allay
27. Altruistic

55. Ascetic
56. Asgard
57. Askance
58. Aspersion
59. Assimilate
60. Assume
61. Atrophy
62. Attire
63. Audacious
64. August
65. Auspicious
66. Avatar
67. Avid
68. Avoirdupois
69. Bacchanal
70. Baedeker
71. Balk
72. Bamboozle
73. Bantam
74. Barbaric
75. Basilica
76. Batik
77. Batter
78. Battery
79. Bauble
80. Bayou
81. Beguile

ENGLISH
STRUCTURE OF THE SYLLABUS (2014)
F.Sc. and Non-F.Sc.

The English section shall consist of four parts:
Part I:
 It will be comprised of Four Questions in which the candidate will have to select
the appropriate/suitable word from the given alternatives.
Part II:
 It will contain sentences with grammatical errors and the candidate will have to
identify the error. There will be Six Questions from this part.
Part III:
 There will be Ten Questions consisting of a list of Four sentences each. The
candidate will have to choose the grammatically correct sentence out of the given
four options.
Part IV:
 In this part, the candidate will be asked to choose the right synonyms. Four
options will be given and He/She will have to choose the most appropriate one.
There will be Ten Questions from this part.

Essential Word Power

Avid

29

82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
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92.
93.
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138.
139.
140.

Behest
Belated
Benediction
Beneficence
Benign
Bequeath
Berate
Berm
Beset
Bifurcated
Bistro
Blandish
Blasphemous
Blathering
Blaze
Bloom
Bonk
Bonsai
Botanicals
Bouquet
Bowdlerize
Braille
Brambles
Brassy
Bravura
Bray
Brio
Broach
Broadside
Buckle
Buoyant
Burgeoning
Cachet
Caesarean
Caliph
Calisthenics
Camber
Cameo
Candelabra
Capital
Capsule
Carapace
Cardigan
Career
Caricature
Cartographer
Cast
Catacomb
Catalyst
Catharsis
Caulk
Cause célèbre
Cay
Centennial
Cerberus
Chassis
Chastise
Chiaroscuro
Chicane

141.
142.
143.
144.
145.
146.
147.
148.
149.
150.
151.
152.
153.
154.
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156.
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183.
184.
185.
186.
187.
188.
189.
190.
191.
192.
193.
194.
195.
196.
197.
198.
199.

Chimerical
Chivalry
Chromosome
Churn
Chutzpah
Clamorous
Claret
Classic
Classical
Clement
Close
Cloud nine
Coast
Cobble
Coccyx
Coercive
Coif
Collage
Comatose
Comely
Commiserate
Commute
Compact
Compatible
Complacent
Concerted
Condone
Conciliatory
Confiscatory
Confound
Congeal.
Congruent
Contemporary
Contiguous
Contradow
Contravention
Contrive
Contumely
Contusion
Copacetic
Coquetry
Cordial
Cordiality
Corked
Corollary
Corpuscle
Corroborating
Cosset
Coterie
Covert
Coveted
Crass
Craven
Crenelate
Crescendo
Crescent
Criterion
Cue
Cul-de-sac

200.
201.
202.
203.
204.
205.
206.
207.
208.
209.
210.
211.
212.
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246.
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249.
250.
251.
252.
253.
254.
255.
256.
257.
258.

Cut and run
Cuvee
Cygnet
Cynical
Dacha
Dale
Dam
Dappled
Dark horse
Dead-ender
Deadhead
Debility
Debunk
Debut
Decant
Decathlon
Decelerate
Decorum
Decry
Defenestration
Deferential
Deferment
Delegate
Delta
Demographics
Demure
Denomination
Deracinate
Desiccate
Deuce
Devious
Dexter
Diaspora
Diffidence
Diffident
Diligence
Diligent
Diocese
Diorama
Diptych
Discombobulate
Discourse
Discrepancy
Discretion
Disdain
Disingenuous
Dissension
Dissent
Dissenter
Dissonance
Diva
Divagate
Divulge
Docent
Dote
Downy
Droll
Dryad
Dulcet

30

259.
260.
261.
262.
263.
264.
265.
266.
267.
268.
269.
270.
271.
272.
273.
274.
275.
276.
277.
278.
279.
280.
281.
282.
283.
284.
285.
286.
287.
288.
289.
290.
291.
292.
293.
294.
295.
296.
297.
298.
299.
300.
301.
302.
303.
304.
305.
306.
307.
308.
309.
310.
311.
312.
313.
314.
315.
316.
317.

Dunce
Duplicitous
Edda
Effect
Effervescent
El dorado
Electrolytes
Elicit
Elucidate
Elusive
Embed
Embedded
Emblazon
Emblematic
Emboss
Emit
Empathy
Emulate
Encomium
Encumber
Encyclical
Enhance
Ennui
Epicenter
Equipoise
Equivocate
Ergometer
Eschew
Espalier
Ethic
Etude
Euphonious
Evanescent
Evasive
Evocative
Excavate
Execrable
Exhortation
Exonerate
Exploitation
Extemporaneous
Extrapolate
Extricate
Extrinsic
Fabricate
Facile
Facilitate
Fait accompli
Fakir
Fartlek
Fascia
Fateful
Faux
Fawning
Feasible
Feckless
Felicitous
Felicity
Feral

318.
319.
320.
321.
322.
323.
324.
325.
326.
327.

328.
329.
330.
331.
332.
333.
334.
335.
336.
337.
338.
339.
340.
341.
342.
343.
344.
345.
346.
347.
348.
349.
350.
351.
352.
353.
354.
355.
356.
357.
358.
359.
360.
361.

362.
363.
364.
365.
366.
367.
368.
369.
370.
371.
372.
373.
374.

Fermentation
Fiesta
Figment
Filigree
Finagle
Fistmele
Flaunt
Flibbertigibbet
Florid
Flotsam and
jetsam
Flux
Fop
Forswear
Frowsy
Funicular
Gable
Galoot
Galvanize
Gambit
Garnish
Gaudy
Genocide
Geodesic
Gesticulate
Gesundheit
Gild
Glaucoma
Glaze
Glib
Glucose
Gradient
Grapevine
Green
Gridlock
Guileless
Guise
Gull
Guru
Habiliments
Hackles
Hail
Halcyon
Hallux
Hammer and
tongs
Harangue
Hawk
Hector
Heinous
Hem and haw
Herbicide
Herculean
Hermetic
Heterogeneous
Hiatus
Holistic- medicine
Homeopathy
Hone

376.
377.
378.
379.
380.
381.
382.
383.
384.
385.
386.
387.
388.
389.
390.
391.
392.
393.
394.
395.
396.
397.
398.
399.
400.
401.
402.
403.
404.
405.
406.
407.
408.
409.
410.
411.
412.
413.
414.
415.
416.
417.
418.
419.
420.
421.
422.
423.
424.
425.
426.
427.
428.
429.
430.
431.
432.
433.
434.

Hue and cry
Humane
Hydra
Hypertension
Hypothermia
Ichor
Idealist
Ilk
Illicit
Imam
Immobilize
Immolate
Impediment
Impending
Impetuous
Impetus
Impinge
Implacable
Importune
Imprecation
Impregnable
Improvise
Impugn
Impute
Inanity
Incarnate
Incentive
Incisive
Inculcate
Indigent
Ineradicable
Inertia
Infallible
Infidel
Infraction
Infusion
Inherent
Iniquity
Innocuous
Innovate
Inoculate
Inordinate
Inquisition
Inscrutable
Inter
Intransigent
Intrinsic
Irrefutable
Isotroplc
Itinerant
Jackknife
Jaded
Jargon
Jejune
Jell
Jeopardy
Jeremiad
Jettison
Jig
375. Horse latitudes
31

435.
436.
437.
438.
439.
440.
441.
442.
443.
444.
445.
446.
447.
448.
449.
450.
451.
452.
453.
454.
455.
456.
457.
458.
459.
460.
461.
462.
463.
464.
465.
466.
467.
468.
469.
470.
471.
472.
473.
474.
475.
476.
477.
478.
479.
480.
481.
482.
483.
484.
485.
486.
487.
488.
489.
490.
491.
492.
493.

Jihad
Jingoism
Jitney
Jocular
Jocund
Joist
Journeyman
Joust
Jubilee
Judicial
Judicious
Juggernaut
Juncture
Junket
Junta
Justify
Juxtapose
Kahuna
Ken
Kerfuffle
Kibitz
Kiln
Kismet
Lacerating
Laconic
Lacunae
Laity
Lampoon
Lapidary
Largess
Latent
Lathe
Laud
Lee
Leitmotif
Lemming
Liement
Ligament
Ligature
Lineage
Lion’s share
Lipid
Lissome
Litter
Liturgy
Lodestar
Lucidity
Lulu
Macrame
Magnanimous
Magnum
Malevolence
Mandala
Maneuver
Manicured
Manifestation
Mansard
Matriculation
Mausoleum

494.
495.
496.
497.
498.
499.
500.
501.
502.
503.
504.
505.
506.
507.
508.
509.
510.
511.
512.
513.
514.
515.
516.
517.
518.
519.
520.
521.
522.
523.
524.
525.
526.
527.
528.
529.
530.
531.
532.
533.
534.
535.
536.
537.
538.
539.
540.
541.
542.
543.
544.
545.
546.
547.
548.
549.
550.
551.
552.

Maverick
Mean
Medley
Melange
Memento
Menial
Mentor
Meritorious
Mesa
Mesmerize
Metabolism
Microcosm
Militate
Minatory
Mirth
Misanthropy
Misapprehension
Mitigation
Modish
Monolithic
Monotheism
Montage
Moot
Morass
Moratorium
Mordant
Mosaic
Mosey
Mote
Motif
Motley
Mountebank
Mulct
Mumbo jumbo
Murky
Muse
Must
Myriad
Nadir
Nary
Née
Neologism
Nexus
Nibelung
Niche
Nike
Nip and tuck
Non sequitur
Nuance
Nuclear family
Obeisance
Obi
Obliterate
Obsequious
Obstreperous
Obtuse
Odometer
Onerous
Onslaught

553.
554.
555.
556.
557.
558.
559.
560.
561.
562.
563.
564.
565.
566.
567.
568.
569.
570.
571.
572.
573.
574.
575.
576.
577.
578.
579.
580.
581.
582.
583.
584.
585.
586.
587.
588.
589.
590.
591.
592.
593.
594.
595.
596.
597.
598.
599.
600.
601.
602.
603.
604.
605.
606.
607.
608.
609.
610.
611.

Onyx
Opaque
Opportune
Optimum
Orb
Origami
Orthodox
Orthotic
Otiose
Overdraft
Oxymoron
Pad
Paddy
Palatable
Palaver
Palazzo
Palpitation
Pampas
Pan
Pandemic
Paper tiger
Papier-mache
Par
Paradox
Paragon
Paramedic
Parameter
Parcel
Pare
Parlous
Paroxysm
Pathos
Patisserie
Peccadillo
Pedestrian
Peerless
Pending
Pendulous
Peninsula
Penultimate
Perfidious
Perfidy
Perfunctory
Perimeter
Peripheral
Periphery
Permeate
Permutation
Peroration
Perpetuate
Perseverance
Persnickety
Perspicacious
Phalanx
Phlegmatic
Picayune
Piety
Pilaster
Placate

32

612.
613.
614.
615.
616.
617.
618.
619.
620.
621.
622.
623.
624.
625.
626.
627.
628.
629.
630.
631.
632.
633.
634.
635.
636.
637.
638.
639.
640.
641.
642.
643.
644.
645.
646.
647.
648.
649.
650.
651.
652.
653.
654.
655.
656.
657.
658.
659.
660.
661.
662.
663.
664.
665.
666.
667.
668.
669.
670.

Placebo
Plague
Platonic
Plethora
Pollex
Polyunsaturated
Pomp
Porcinely
Portmanteau
Portray
Postulate
Potable
Potpourri
Precipitate
Précis
Preclude
Precursor
Predatory
Pre-emptive
Premise
Premonition
Preplate
Prevail
Prevalent
Prig
Primal
Privation
Pro forma
Procrastinate
Procure
Prodigious
Prolific
Proponent
Proscription
Provender
Provident
Provocative
Prowess
Prune
Purchase
Putrid
Quadriceps
Quagmire
Quarter
Queasy
Querulous
Queue
Quintessential
Quintile
Quorum
Radiant
Rakish
Rambunctious
Rapacious
Rapport
Raze
Reactionary
Recapitulate
Reciprocal

671.
672.
673.
674.
675.
676.
677.
678.
679.
680.
681.
682.
683.
684.
685.
686.
687.
688.
689.
690.
691.
692.
693.
694.
695.
696.
697.
698.
699.
700.
701.
702.
703.
704.
705.
706.
707.
708.
709.
710.
711.
712.
713.
714.
715.
716.
717.
718.
719.
720.
721.
722.
723.
724.
725.
726.
727.
728.
729.

Reclamation
Reclusive
Reconnoitre
Rectify
Red herring
Redolent
Regatta
Regime
Regnant
Relegate
Relief
Remedial
Renege
Renovate
Repute
Resonance
Resound
Restitution
Resuscitate
Retrench
Riff
Robust
Roil
Rope-a-dope
Roster
Ruddy
Rue
Ruminant
Sagacity
Sampan
Sampler
Sanatorium
Sanctity
Sandbagger
Sanguine
Sarong
Satiate
Satire
Scam
Sceptic
Sciatica
Score
Scorned
Scruple
Scrutinize
Scut work
Scuttle
Sear
Sec
Sedate
Seder
Sediment
Segment
Seminary
Senescent
Sensibility
Septic
Serendipity
Seriatim

730.
731.
732.
733.
734.
735.
736.
737.
738.
739.
740.
741.
742.
743.
744.
745.
746.
747.
748.
749.
750.
751.
752.
753.
754.
755.
756.
757.
758.
759.
760.
761.
762.
763.
764.
765.
766.
767.
768.
769.
770.
771.
772.
773.
774.
775.
776.
777.
778.
779.
780.
781.
782.
783.
784.
785.
786.
787.
788.

Shaman
Shrapnel
Sidle
Sierra
Siesta
Silhouette
Simony
Sinecure
Singe
Sisyphean
Skeptical
Skew
Skittish
Smithereens
Smorgasbord
Snide
Sojourn
Solvent
Somatic
Sophistry
Spa
Specious
Specter
Splotch
Spurious
Squander
Stagftation
Stalwart
Stanch
Staples
Static
Stay
Stentorian
Steppe
Sticky wicket
Stilted
Stimuli
Stipulate
Stoicism
Stratagem
Subdivision
Succumb
Sui generis
Sunder
Superficial
Superfluous
Supposition
Surplice
Surrealism
Surrealistic
Sward
Swivel
Sycophantic
Syllogism
Symbiosis
Table d’hote
Taboo
Tactile
Tai chi

33

818. Tussle
819. Uber
820. Uncanny
821. Undergird
822. Understeer
823. Undulate
824. Undulating
825. Unmitigated
826. Unregenerate
827. Urbane
828. Vale
829. Valedictory
830. Vanquish
831. Vascular
832. Vaud
833. Vegetate
834. Velodrome
835. Venality
836. Vendetta
837. Veneer
838. Venerable
839. Venomous
840. Ventricle
841. Veracity
842. Vertex
843. Verve
844. Viability
845. Vintage
846. Vintner

789. Tailgate
790. Talk turkey
791. Tank
792. Tariff
793. Taxidermy
794. Tchotchkes
795. Telepathy
796. Temperance
797. Tenacious
798. Tessellate
799. Therapeutic
800. Tinge
801. Tipping point
802. Titan
803. Torpid
804. Totem
805. Totemic
806. Traction
807. Tranquil
808. Transcend
809. Transient
810. Transmute
811. Trash talk
812. Treacly
813. Trepidation
814. Triage
815. Trifle
816. Trilogy
817. Trundle

847. Virago
848. Virulent
849. Vista
850. Viticulture
851. Vituperative
852. Vociferous
853. Voguism
854. Voracious
855. Voraciousness
856. Vortex
857. Vulcanize
858. Wadi
859. Wan
860. Wheedle
861. Whiplash
862. Woof
863. Wry
864. Wunderkind
865. Xanadu
866. Xanthic
867. Xanthippe
868. Xenophobic
869. Xeric
870. Xyloid
871. Yarmulke
872. Yin and yang

34

SELF TEST QUESTIONS (ENGLISH)

Choose single best option
Q.1 He was _______________ of all valuable possessions.
A) Robbed.
B) Stolen.
C) Pinched.
D) Established.

Q.2

The presence of armed guards ____________ us from doing anything disruptive.
A) Defeated.
B) Excited.
C) Irritated.
D) Prevented.

Q.3

Our flight was _____________ from Lahore to Islamabad airport.
A) Diverted.
B) Reflected.
C) Deflected.
D) Shifted.
Q.4 I am _____________ forward to our picnic scheduled in next month.
A) Looking.
B) Planning.

SPOT THE ERROR:
C) Seeing.
D) Going.

In the following sentences some segments of each
sentence are underlined. Your task is to indentify that underlined segment of
the sentence, which contains the mistake that needs to be corrected. Fill the
bubble / circle corresponding to that letter under the segment in the MCQ
Response form.

Q.5

They did not guess how closely he had kept in touch with across the road.
A B C D

Q.6

He proved that if only germs were excluded of wounds , inflammation was averted.
A B C D

Q.7

The man felt his hair flutter and the tissues of his body drew tight as if he were standing at the
A
centre of a vacuum .
D
B C

Q.8

He came to the hurdles that he remember , over which once he had one so easy a victory.
A B C D

In each of the following question, four alternative sentences are given. Choose
the CORRECT one and fill the bubble / circle corresponding to that letter in the
MCQ Response Form.

Q.9
A)
B)
C)
D)
He
He
He
He
lacked
lacked
lacked
lacked
both
both
both
both
the
the
the
the
training
training
training
training
and
and
and
and
the
the
the
the
equipment
equipment
equipment
equipment
needed
needed
needed
needed
in the job.
by the job.
on the job.
for the job.

Q.10
A)
B)
C)
D)
They
They
They
They
tried
tried
tried
tried
to
to
to
to
pacify
pacify
pacify
pacify
him
him
him
him
for kindness and affection.
in kindness and affection.
by kindness and affection.
with kindness and affection.

Q.11
A)
B)
C)
D)
Then
Then
Then
Then
he
he
he
he
sat
sat
sat
sat
down
down
down
down
i n
i n
i n
i n
corner
corner
corner
corner
and
and
and
and
remained queit.
remained quite.
remain quiet.
remained quiet.

Q.12
A)
B)
C)
D)
He
He
He
He
was
was
was
was
drenched
drenched
drenched
drenched
with the hotness of his fear.
in the hotness of his fear.
by the hotness of his fear.
off the hotness of his fear.
35

In each of the following question, four alternative meanings of a word are
given. You have to select the NEAREST CORRECT MEANING of the given word
and fill the appropriate Bubble / Circle on the MCQ Response Form.

Q.13

VEXING
A) Annoying
B) Aggressive
C) Viable
D) Waxy

Q.14

VAGUE
A) Respectful
B) Uncertain
C) Warlock
D) Snow white

Q.15

MANGLED
A) Dodged
B) Grained
C) Indisputable
D) Damaged

Q.16

PRODIGIOUS
A) Productive
B) Enormous
C) Prudential
D) Waddle

Q.17

ASTOUNDED
A) Shocked
B) Discarded
C) Assured
D) Attracted

Q.18

SAGACITY
A) Foolishness
B) Large City
C) Onions
D) Wisdom

Q.19

GRIM
A) Gratis
B) Restless
C) Severe
D) Grater

Q.20

INDOLENTLY
A) Lazily
B) Indecently
C) Ideally
D) Gaily

Q.21

PERISH
A) Furious
B) Come to death
C) Secret
D) Frustrated

Q.22

DOZE
A) Dogged
B) Diet

36
C) Sleep
D) Medicine to be taken

BIOLOGY
STRUCTURE OF THE SYLLABUS (2014)
F.Sc. and Non-F.Sc.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction to Biology

2. Cell Biology

3. Biological Molecules

4. Microbiology

5. Kingdom Animalia and Plantae

6. Human Physiology

7. Bioenergetics

8. Biotechnology

9. Ecosystem

10. Evolution and Genetics

37

1. INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY:

Content
Branches of Biology

Learning outcomes:

a) Define the following terms:
Ecology, Physiology, Histology, Genetics, Zoogeography, Molecular Biology,
Microbiology, Marine and Fresh water Biology, Biotechnology, Parasitology.
b) What are the various levels of Biological organization starting with atomic and
subatomic levels to community level?
c) Define the following terms:
Transgenic plants, Cloning, Biological control, Biopesticides, Pasteurization,
Disease Control (Preventive measure, Vaccinization, Drug therapy)

2. CELL BIOLOGY:

Content
Cell structure
Structure and Function of cellular organelles
Cell division

Learning outcomes:
a) Compare the structure of typical animal and plant cell
b) Compare and contrast the structure of Prokaryotic cell with Eukaryotic cells
c) Fluid mosaic model of cell membrane and transportation (diffusion, facilitated
diffusion, active and passive transport), endocytosis and exocytosis.
d) Outline the structure and function of the following organelles:
Nucleus, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Mitochondria, Centrioles,
Ribosomes
e) Explain Mitosis, what is its significance?
f) What is Meiosis, describe it in detail.
g) Describe Meiotic errors (Down’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s
syndrome)
h) Discuss the terms Karyokinesis and Cytokinesis;
i) Discuss and explain:



Uncontrolled cell division (cancer)
Programmed cell death (Apoptosis)
Necrosis

38

3. BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES:

Content
Carbohydrate
Proteins
Lipids
Nucleic acids
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Enzymes

Learning outcomes:
a) Discuss carbohydrates: Monosaccharides (Glucose), Oligosaccharides (Cane sugar,
sucrose), Polysaccharides (Starches)
b) Describe Proteins: Amino acids, Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary
structure of proteins
c) Describe Lipids: Acylglyceroles, waxes, Phospholipids, Terpenoids
d) Describe the structure along its back bone composition and function of DNA as
hereditary material, Replication of DNA (Semi-conservative), Role of triplet codons,
Transcription (making up of mRNA), Translation (protein synthesis: role of
ribosomes, mRNA, tRNA)
e) Give the structure and types of RNA (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA)
f) What is enzyme and its role in reducing activation energy?
g) Define the following terms:
 Enzymes, Coenzyme, Co-factor, Prosthetic group, Apoenzyme and Holoenzyme
h) Explain the mode/mechanism of enzyme action
i) Describe the effects of temperature, pH, enzyme concentration and substrate
concentration on the rate of enzyme catalysed reaction
j) Explain the effects of reversible and irreversible, competitive and non-competitive
inhibitors on the rate of enzyme activity

39

4. MICROBIOLOGY:
Content
Virus
Bacteria
Fungi
Learning outcomes
a) Which are the viral diseases in humans?
b) Reteroviruses and Acquired Immunodeficiency diseases
c) Describe the Life cycle of Bacteriophage (in detail with its all steps) including:


Lytic cycle
Lysogenic cycle
d) Describe the structure and types of bacteria
e) Discuss in detail:



Gram +ve bacteria
Gram –ve bacteria
Nutrition in bacteria
f) What are the uses and misuses of antibiotics?
g) What are molds (fungi)? How they are useful and harmful to mankind, give
examples.
h) Describe the Life cycle of fungus (Rhizopus).

5. KINGDOM ANIMALIA AND PLANTAE:

Content
Kingdom Animalia (phyla)
Kingdom Plantae

Learning outcomes:
a) Porifera (with respect to their capacity to regenerate)
b) Coelenterata (coral reefs as habitat for sea animals)
c) Platyhelminthes (Harmful effects on human beings) with examples
d) Ascheliminthes (Infection in humans) with examples
e) Arthropoda (Economic importance of Arthropods and harmful impacts on Man)
f) Define the following terms:
 Coelomata, Acoelomata, Pseudocoele, Radiata, Bilateria, Diploblastic and
Triploblastic organization.
g) Economic importance of families with reference to food and other usefulness:



Cassia
Solanaceae
Gramineae

40

6. HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY:

Content
a) Digestive System
b) Gas exchange and Transportation
c) Excretion and Osmoregulation
d) Nervous System
e) Reproduction
f) Support and Movement
g) Hormonal Control (Endocrine Glands)
h) Immunity

Learning outcomes:
a) Digestive System:
 Anatomy of digestive system and specify the digestion in:
– Oral cavity (role of teeth, tongue, saliva and enzymes)
– Stomach (enzymes)
– Small intestine
– Large intestine
b) Gas exchange and Transportation:



Anatomy of respiratory system (nostrils, trachea, lungs)
Explain the term breathing
Discuss Blood composition, lymph, structure of heart, carriage of oxygen and
carbon dioxide
c) Excretion and Osmoregulation:




Describe the structure of kidney and its functions with respect to homeostasis
What are Kidney problems and cures?
– Kidney stones, lithotripsy, kidney transplant, dialysis, renal failure
What do you understand by the term Homeostasis?
d) Nervous System:









What is Nervous system and its types?
Explain CNS (Central Nervous System) including forebrain, mid brain, hind brain
and spinal cord
Explain PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) and its types (Autonomic and
Sympathetic Nervous System)
Neurons (Associative, motor and sensory neuron)
Discuss the Nervous disorders (Parkinson’s disease, Epilepsy and Alzheimer’s
disease)
What do you understand by Biological clock and circadian Rhythms?

41

e) Reproduction:





Explain the Reproductive system in male in detail
Explain the Reproductive system in female / Menstrual cycle
Explain:
– Spermatogenesis
– Oogenesis
Discuss the following Diseases in detail which are sexually transmitted:
– Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Genital Herpes, AIDS and how these diseases can be
controlled (treatment is not required)
f) Support and Movement:




Explain the role of Human skeleton and skeletal muscles in locomotion
Explain the process of muscle contraction
What is Muscle fatigue, Tetani, Cramps?
Describe the structure and functions of involuntary, voluntary and cardiac
muscles
g) Hormonal control (Endocrine glands):








What are hormones?
Describe Hypothalamus with its hormones.
Describe Pituitary gland with hormones secreted from its Anterior, Median and
Posterior lobe
Describe adrenal gland with its hormones.
What are Islets of langerhans?
What are the hormones of alimentary canal (Gastrin, secretin)?
The hormones of ovaries and testes
h) Immunity:






Immune system and define its components:
– Antigen
– Antibody (structure of antibody)
– Lymphocytes (B and T cells)
What is cell mediated response and humoral immune response?
Types of Immunity:
– Active immunity
– Passive immunity
What do you mean by vaccination?

42

7. BIOENERGETICS:

Content
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration

Learning outcomes
a) Photosynthetic pigments and their absorption spectrum
b) Light dependent stage
c) Light independent stage
d) Describe the respiration at cellular level including:
 Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport Chain

8. BIOTECHNOLOGY:

Content
DNA technology

Learning outcomes
a) Explain Recombinant DNA Technology
b) Discuss Polymerase Chain Reaction (detailed procedure)
c) What do you understand by the following terms:


Gene therapy
Transgenic animals

9. ECOSYSTEM:

Content
Components of Ecosystem
Biological succession
Energy flow in ecosystem
Impacts of Human activity on ecosystem

Learning outcomes:
a) Abiotic and biotic components of ecosystem
b) What is succession, give various stages of succession on land.
c) Explain the following terms:
 Predation, parasitism, symbiosis, mutualism, commensalism, grazing
d) Describe the flow of energy in an ecosystem


Food chain
Food web
e) What is the significance of Human activity on ecosystem as population, deforestation,
ozone depletion, atmospheric pollution, Green house effect, industrial effluents
(insecticides and herbicides).

43

10.

EVOLUTION AND GENETICS:

Content
Darwin’s theory
Lamarck’s theory
Evidences of evolution
Genetics

Learning outcomes
a) Theory of Darwin and Lamarck, also discuss the merits and demerits
b) Evidences of evolution from paleontology and comparative embryology
c) Sex determination and sex linkage in humans
d) Define the following terms:
 Mutations, Epistasis, Gene, Allele, Multiple allele, Pleiotropy.

44

Topic MCQs
1. Introduction to Biology 04
2. Cell Biology 10
3. Biological Molecules
a) Carbohydrates 02
b) Proteins 01
c) Lipids 01
d) Nucleic Acids 01
e) Enzymes 04
4. Microbiology
a) Virus 01
b) Bacteria 02
c) Fungi 01
5. Kingdom Animalia and Plantae 05
6. Human Physiology
a) Digestive System 04
b) Gas exchange and Transportation 04
c) Excretion and Osmoregulation 05
d) Nervous System 04
e) Reproduction 05
f) Support and Movement 05
g) Hormonal Control (Endocrine Glands) 04
h) Immunity 05
7. Bioenergetics 05
8. Biotechnology 05
9. Ecosystem 05
10.Evolution and Genetics 05
Total 88

Table of Specification (Biology-2014)
(For F.Sc. and Non-F.Sc.)

45

SELF TEST QUESTIONS (BIOLOGY)

Choose single best option
Q.1 The branch of biology that deals with cell functions is called:
A) Histology.
B) Physiology.
C) Molecular biology.
D) Microbiology.

Q.2

Different tissues having related functions together form:
A) Organ.
B) Individual.
C) Organelles.
D) Molecules.

Q.3

Statement made by a scientist that may or may not be true is:
A) Theory.
B) Hypothesis.
C) Scientific law.
D) Statement.

Q.4

The method by which pests are destroyed by using some living organisms is called:
A) Bio-pesticide.
B) Integrated management.
C) Biological control.
D) Pasteurization.

Q.5

Robert Hook was the first person to see cells in:
A) Various plants.
B) Animals.
C) Fungi.
D) Cork.
Q.6 The concept “OMNIS cellula-e-cellala” means that, new cells are formed from:
A) Non living materials.
B) Dead organic matter.
C) Pre-existing living cells.
D) As the result of chemical reactions.

Q.7

In generalized plant cell the nucleus is:
A) Present in middle of the cell.
B) Displaced to the side of the cell.
C) Absent.
D) Modified into endoplasmic
reticulum.
Q.8 Plasma membrane is found in the cells of:
A) Animals only.
B) Plants only.
C) Both in plants and animals.
D) Bacteria only.

Q.9

The semicircular channels and system of tubes found in cytoplasm are known as:
A) Ribosomes.
B) Glyoxisomes.
C) Endoplasmic reticulum.
D) Vacuoles.

Q.10

The structures that are involved in the manufacture and supply of energy to the cell
are:
A) Centrioles.
B) Plastids.
C) Nucleolus.
D) Mitochondria.

Q.11

In a plant cell chlorophyll is present in:
A) Chromoplasts.
B) Leucoplasts.
C) Stroma.
D) Chloroplasts.

Q.12

Cytokinesis is a division of:
A) Cytoplasm.
B) Chromosomes.
C) Nucleus.
D) Nucleolus.

Q.13

During cell division the plant cell is not seen to have:
A) Spindle fibers.
B) Chromatids.
C) Centromere.
D) Centrioles.

Q.14

Which human disease is due to meiotic errors:
A) Typhoid.
B) Cholera.
C) Measles.
D) Down’s syndrome.

Q.15

The basic element of all organic compounds is:
A) Oxygen.
B) Nitrogen.
C) Hydrogen.
D) Carbon.

Q.16

The most abundant carbohydrate in nature is:
A) Cellulose.
B) Glycogen.

46
C) Fructose.
D) Starch.

Q.17

Terpenoids are important group of compounds that are made up of simple repeating
units:
A) Acylglycerols.
B) Isoprenoids.
C) Phospholipids.
D) Ketones.

Q.18

The number of types of amino acid that are found to occur in cells are:
A) 20.
B) 25.
C) 100.
D) 170.

Q.19

Biochemically enzymes are:
A) Carbohydrates.
B) Fatty acids.
C) Hormones.
D) Proteins.

Q.20

The presence of enzymes:
A) Slows down the rate of reaction.
B) Increases the rate of reaction.
C) Does not show any change.
D) Completely stops the reaction.

Q.21

Lock and key model of enzyme reacting with substrate was originally proposed by:
A) Emil Fisher.
B) Koshland.
C) Robert Hook.
D) Robert Brown.

Q.22

The major RNA in the cell is ribosomal RNA. It makes up:
A) 80% of total RNAs.
B) 58% of total RNAs.
C) 90% of total RNAs.
D) 40% of total RNA.

Q.23

Optimum pH for pepsin to work efficiently is:
A) 4.50
B) 2.00
C) 6.80
D) 9.00

Q.24

Viruses are simplest organisms and:
A) Have their own enzymes.
B) Have cell membrane but not cell
wall.
C) Undergo cell division.
D) Are only DNA or RNA particles
without cellular structure.
Q.25 The most ancient bacteria are:
A) Eubacteria.
B) Archaeobacteria.
C) Escherichia coli.
D) Streptococci.

Q.26

The bacteria that cause diseases in human beings, are called:
A) Photosynthetic bacteria.
B) Chemosynthetic bacteria.
C) Facultative bacteria.
D) Pathogenic bacteria.

Q.27

The mutualistic association between certain fungi and roots of vascular plants is
called:
A) Lichens.
B) Parasitism.
C) Budding.
D) Mycorrhizae.

Q.28

Sponges which belong to phylum Porifera have:
A) Maximum capacity to regenerate.
B) Very little capacity to regenerate.
C) Moderate capacity to regenerate.
D) No regeneration capacity.

Q.29

The platyhelminthes liver fluke is:
A) Ectoparasite in humans.
B) Blood parasite.
C) Parasite of respiratory tract.
D) Parasite in the bile duct.

Q.30

Which of the following is of economic importance to man:
A) Daphnia.
B) Millipede.
C) Silkworm.
D) Scorpion.

Q.31

The name Nicotiana tabacum is given to:
A) Potato.
B) Tomato.
C) Red pepper.
D) Tobacco.

Q.32

Family Gramineae has:
A) Only wheat.
B) Only corn.
C) Only rice.
D) All of the above.
Q.33 During swallowing the food travels from oral cavity to the stomach by way of
oesophagus:
A) Very quickly.
B) By anti-peristalsis.

47
C) Pushed down by pharynx.
D) Moving due to peristalsis.

Q.34

The pancreas is a:
A) Part of Stomach.
B) Part of Small intestine.
C) Part of Large intestine.
D) Separate gland.

Q.35

The term chyme is applied to:
A) Semi-digestive food in oral cavity.
B) Semi-solid food in stomach.
C) Semi-digested food in the small
intestine.
D) Completely digested food in the
last part of small intestine.

Q.36

Villi and micro villi are present:
A) In pharynx.
B) In small intestine (jejunum).
C) In oesophagus.
D) In large intestine.

Q.37

Exchange of gases during orginismic respiration is carried out by:
A) Diffusion.
B) Active transport.
C) Osmosis.
D) Facilitated diffusion.

Q.38

The opening in the oral cavity (throat) through which air enters the wind pipe is
called:
A) Glottis.
B) Bronchus.
C) Larynx.
D) Pharynx.

Q.39

The double layer of thin membranes which line and cover lungs are called:
A) Diaphragm.
B) Alveoli.
C) Pleura.
D) Bronchioles.

Q.40

Transportation of oxygen from lungs to the tissue cells is by means of:
A) Complete blood.
B) Lymph.
C) Red blood cells.
D) White blood cells.

Q.41

Podocytes are present in:
A) Epithelium of renal capsule.
B) Endothelium of blood capillary.
C) Basement membrane of blood
capillary.
D) Epithelium of the PCT.

Q.42

Which of the following are the functions of proximal convoluted tubule:
A) Ultrafiltration and reabsorption.
B) Selective reabsorption and
retention of water.
C) Selective reabsorption and active
tubular secretion.
D) Reabsorption of water by the help
of ADH.
Q.43 The walls of descending limb of loop of Henle are:
A) Permeable to water as well as to
sodium and chloride.
B) Permeable to water but
impermeable to salts.
C) Impermeable to water and
permeable to sodium and chloride.
D) Impermeable to both water and
salts.

Q.44

ADH affects which of the following for retention of water:
A) Walls of collecting duct.
B) Walls of loop of Henle.
C) Glomerulus.
D) Proximal convoluted tubule.

Q.45

The counter-current multiplier mechanism is shown by which of the following:
A) Loop of Henle.
B) Proximal convoluted tubule.
C) Distal convoluted tubule.
D) Bowman’s capsule.

Q.46

Mechanoreceptors detect stimulus of:
A) Smell.
B) Light.
C) Pressure (touch).
D) Cold and warmth.

Q.47

The effectors in the human body which respond to a stimulus are:
A) Glands only.
B) Muscles only.
C) Both muscles and glands.
D) Bones.

Q.48

Loss of memory (Dementia) is also known as:
A) Alzheimer’s disease.
B) Epilepsy.
C) Parkinson’s disease.
D) Graves disease.

Q.49

A mix nerve consists of:
A) Motor and sensory nerve fibers.
B) Sensory and associative nerve
fibers.

48
C) Motor and associative nerve fibers.
D) Dendrons and dendrites.

Q.50

Which one of the following hormones is essential for the successful production of
sperms:
A) LH (Luteinizing Hormone).
B) Gonadotropin hormone.
C) Testosterone.
D) Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).
Q.51 Treponema pallidum cause a disease (sexually transmitted) called:
A) Genital Herpes.
B) AIDS.
C) Gonorrhoa.
D) Syphilis.
Q.52 The fertilization of ovum takes place in the proximal part of the:
A) Uterus.
B) Oviduct.
C) Placenta.
D) Urethra.
Q.53 Pregnancy is maintained by the:
A) LTH (Luteotropic hormone).
B) Progesterone.
C) Corticosteroids.
D) LH and FSH.
Q.54 At which month of pregnancy the human embryo is referred to as the fetus:
A) 3rd month.
B) 4th month.
C) 6th month.
D) 2nd month.

Q.55

Muscle fatigue is due to accumulation of:
A) Lactic acid.
B) ATP.
C) Glucose.
D) Fats.

Q.56

Diameter of skeletal muscle fiber is:
A) 2-50 μm.
B) 30-90 μm.
C) 10-100 μm.
D) 1-80 μm.

Q.57

Lining of digestive system contain the:
A) Skeletal muscles.
B) Skeletal and cardiac muscles.
C) Cardiac muscles.
D) Smooth muscles.
Q.58 The vertebral column consists of _______ vertebrae:
A) 33
B) 30
C) 28
D) 38
Q.59 The most abundant type of bone found on moveable joints is:
A) Bone.
B) Hyaline cartilage.
C) Fibro-cartilage.
D) Bone and fibro-cartilage.

Q.60

Which of the following is a hormone:
A) Gastric juice.
B) Pancreatic juice.
C) Bile.
D) Insulin.

Q.61

The hormones in the human body are produced by:
A) Brain only.
B) Liver only.
C) Pancreas only.
D) Different endocrine glands.

Q.62

Insulin is a hormone produced by:
A) Thyroid gland.
B) Parathyroid.
C) Adrenaline gland.
D) Pancreas.

Q.63

The hormone called Parathormone regulates calcium level in the blood. This hormone
is produced by:
A) Gonads.
B) Gut.
C) Thyroid gland.
D) Parathyroid.

Q.64

The chemical nature of antibody is:
A) Glycoproteins.
B) Glycolipids.
C) Lipoproteins.
D) Polysaccharides.

Q.65

Which chemicals are secreted by T-helper cells to stimulate B-plasma cells to divide:
A) Interferons.
B) Cytokines.
C) Histamines.
D) Fibrin.

Q.66

Which of the following is described as vaccination:
A) Artificial active immunity.
B) Natural active immunity.
C) Artificial passive immunity.
D) Natural passive immunity.

Q.67

B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes are formed:
A) Before birth in bone marrow.
B) Before birth in thymus gland.

49
C) After maturity in blood.
D) After birth in blood.

Q.68

The antibodies provided to infant through mother’s milk is an example of:
A) Natural passive immunity.
B) Artificial passive immunity.
C) Natural active immunity.
D) Artificial active immunity.

Q.69

Which of the following is not the end product of glycolysis:
A) Pyruvate.
B) ATP.
C) Oxaloacetate.
D) Reduced NAD.

Q.70

Which of the following process does occur for the formation of acetyl Co-A from
pyruvate:
A) Decarboxylation.
B) Hydrogenation.
C) Carboxylation.
D) Deaminaiton.

Q.71

At the beginning of Krebs cycle, acetyl Co-A combines with which substance to form
citrate (6-C):
A) Oxaloacetate.
B) Oxoglutarate.
C) Fumarate.
D) Succinate.

Q.72

Which of the following are the end products of light dependent stage, used in the
Calvin cycle to change glycerate-3-phosphates into triose phosphates:
A) NADPH + ATP
B) NADH + ATP
C) RuBp + ATP
D) O2 + NADPH

Q.73

Which of the following is not the end product of non-cyclic photophosphorylation:
A) Reduced NADP.
B) ATP.
C) O2.
D) CO2.
Q.74 Enzymes restriction endonucleases were isolated from:
A) Viruses.
B) Bacteria.
C) Fungi.
D) Protozoan.

Q.75

During polymerase chain reaction, how DNA double helix is separated:
A) By heat treatment.
B) By use of enzyme DNA Polymerase.
C) By use of enzyme DNA Helicase.
D) By use of enzyme DNA Ligase.

Q.76

Which enzyme is used to join the desired gene into the plasmid DNA during genetic
engineering:
A) DNA Helicase.
B) DNA Ligase.
C) DNA Polymerase.
D) Taq Polymerase.

Q.77

Which of the following is an example of benefits of transgenic organisms produced
through genetic engineering:
A) Production of antibiotics.
B) Production of insulin.
C) Production of anti-rabies vaccine.
D) Production of anti-malarial drugs.

Q.78

In cystic fibrosis transportation of which ion is faulty, resulting into the production of
disease:
A) Chloride.
B) Fluoride.
C) Calcium.
D) Magnesium.

Q.79

A group of inter-breeding individuals occurring together in a space and time is called:
A) Community.
B) Population.
C) Niche.
D) Species.

Q.80

Which of these is biotic factor of the ecosystem:
A) Air.
B) Water.
C) Soil.
D) Photosynthetic plants.

Q.81

An association between organisms which brings benefit to both the organisms is
known as:
A) Predation.
B) Commensalism.
C) Grazing.
D) Symbiosis.

Q.82

When succession is completed, a great diversity of plants and a stable community is
seen, which is called:
A) Hydrosphere.
B) Pioneers.
C) Climax community.
D) Secondary succession.

Q.83

A thin layer of earth in which all living organisms exists is called:
A) Ecosystem.
B) Biosphere.

50
C) Habitat.
D) Xerosere.

Q.84

The branch of biology that provide evidence through fossil record is called:
A) Vestigial structures.
B) Comparative anatomy.
C) Biogeography.
D) Palaeontology.

Q.85

One of the factors given below does not effect gene frequency:
A) Mutation.
B) Migration.
C) Genetic drift.
D) Food.
Q.86 Charles Darwin gave the:
A) Theory of special creation.
B) Theory of Natural selection.
C) Inheritance of acquired characters.
D) Cell theory.

Q.87

A gene which has multiple phenotypic effect is called:
A) Pleiotropic.
B) Epistasis.
C) Multiple allele.
D) Locus.

Q.88

Change in the nature of gene is known as:
A) Incomplete dominance.
B) Pleiotropy.

51
C) Mutation.
D) Polygenic trait.

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