Headmaster Notes , Test Preparation Classification of Educational Research Notes
Types by Purpose
1- Basic Research: it is concerned with development and refinement of theories.it is conducted in labs and uses animals rather than human beings as subjects.
2- Applied Reserch: it is concerned with the applying or testing of theories and evaluating its usefulness in solving educational problems. It is conducted in the field under natural setting. And uses humans as subjects rather than animals. It is conducted by educationists.
3- Action Research: it is concerned with solving practical problems through the application of scientific method. It is conducted in one or many classrooms and uses pupils as subjects. It is conducted by the teachers.
(B) Types by Method
1- Historical Research: it is concerned with studying, understanding and explaining events of past. Therd are 4 types of historical research (a) bibliographic research(b) legal research(c) research on history of idea (d) research on history of institutions and organizations.
2-Descriptive Research: it is concerned with describing the current status of a phenomena or subject of study. There are 2 types of descriptive research (a) simple descriptive (b) comparative descriptive.
The minimum sample size in descriptive research is 20% of the population.
3-Experimental Research: in this research the effect of independent variable on dependent variable is studied while controlling relevant/extraneous variables.it involves manipulation of at least one independent variable. The minimum size of a sample in experimental research is 15 per group.
4-Casual Comparative Research: casual comparative or ex post facto, research is that research in which the researcher attempts to determine the cause or reason, for existing difference in the behaviour of individuals. The basic casual comparative approach involves starting with an effect and seeking possible causes. It attempts to identify cause and effect relationship.Independent variable is not manipulated in this research.
5-Correlation Research: it involves collecting data in order to determine whether and to what degree, a relationship exists b/w two or more quantifiable variables. Degree of relatioship is expressed as a correlation coefficient. 30 subjects are generally considered to be a minimally acceptable sample size in this research.
Sampling: is a process of selecting a number of individual for a study in such a way that the individuals represent the larger group from which they were selected.
Types of Sampling
(1) Probability Sampling: it is that in which the sample is selected in such a way that every individual of a population has known chance/probability of being included in sample. ( random selection)
(2) Non Probabilhty Sampling: in this sampling it is not possible to specify the probability or chance that each member of a population has of being selected for the sample
Types of Probability Sampling
1: Random Sampling: in which all individuals in the defined population have an equal chance of selection.
2: Stratified Sampling: representation of same proportion of individuals in a sample as they exist in population”.
3: Cluster Sampling: sampling in which groups rather than individuals are selected.
4: Systematic Sampling: sampling in which individuals are selected from a list at specific interval/sequence.
Types of Non Probability Sampling
1: Convenience Sampling: it involves people who are available, volunteer, or can be easily recruited. It is also referred as accidental sampling/ haphazard sampling.
2:Quota Sampling: when listing of population is not possible, interviews are given from exact number of quotas from persons of varying character. In which researcher determines the appropriate sample sizes for the groups identified as important, and then taking convenience samples from those groups.
3:Purposive Sampling: sampling that involves selecting a convenience sample from a population with a specific set of characteristics for research study.
4: Snowball Sampling: sampling in which the researcher ask the research participants to identify other potential research participants.
Headmaster Notes , Test Preparation Teaching Method Notes
(5) Project Method: it is a problematic act carried to completion in its natural setting. There are following steps in this method (a) provision of a situation (b) selection of objectives (c) planning (d) execution (e) evaluation (f) recording. It is based upon psychological and sociological principles. It develops insight toward life problem. Project startegy provides an opportunity for work experience, divergent thinking and social efficiency.
There are some demerits in this method. It is time consuming. Teacher is overloaded with work. Students gain outward ideas of subjects only. Text and reference materials are found with scarcity. It is expenrive.syllabus of advance classes cannot be covered with this method, as it requires greater time.
(6) Activity Method: activity method brings the students close to the real life situation. they get first hand experience in an enviornment in which they are performing certain activity. It is recognized that the directed activities give reality to learning and effective teaching uses all available sources. There are different types of activities (a) Exploratory- knowledge getting (b) Constructive- experience getting (c) Expressional- presentation.
(7) Inductive Method: in this method, the child is enabled to arrive at the general conclusion, establish laws or formulate generalizations through the observation of particular facts, and concrete examples. A universal truth is proved by showing that, if it is true for a particular case
and is further true for a reasonably adequate number of cases, it is true for all such cases. The formula of generalization is thus arrived at through a convincing process of reasoning and solving of problems. It is a logical method. It gives opportunity of active participation. It reduces dependence on memorization and homework. It is based on actual observation, thinking and experimentation.
Its drawbacks: it is limited in range. It is not absolutely conclusive. Three or four cases are picked up to generalize an observation. It is laborious and time consuming. At the advanced stage, it is not so useful as some of the unnecessary details and explanations may become dull and boring.
(8) Deductive Method: it is the opposite of the inductive method. Here the learner proceeds from general to particular, abstract to concrete and formula to examples. The method is short and time saving.it glorifies memory, as the students have to memorize a considerable number of formulas and definations. It enhances speed and efficiency in solving problems.
But it also have some drawbacks as it is very difficult for a beginner to understand an abstract formula if it is not preceded by a number of concrete instances. Use of this method will demand the blind memorization. Here memory is more important than intelligence. The students can’t become active learners. It is not suitable for the development of thinking, reasoning and discovery.
9) Drill Method: there is repeated performance of a learning act until a desired level of skill to do the act correctly is attained or the teacher and student settle for a lesser level of competency. The performance may be verbal, as in music, speaking a foreign language, and speech correction and therapy; written, as in mathematics, spelling, and shorthand, or manual as in industrial arts, art, athletics and physical education, and typing.
(10) Group Differentiated Method: it is based on the principle that no student is particularly different from any group or class of students. All students are equally capable and efficient. It is a balanced instruction for individuals and groups.
This instruction is imparted collectively to a group of students at the same time and place. It develops a spirit of competition. It promotes debating and discussion. It promotes social development and consciousmess among the students for greater cooperation, sympathy, sacrifice, affection and loving behavior. It saves time and money. In other words within limited / lesser resources instruction is imparted to a great number of students.
(11) Question Answer Method: the Socratic startegy is known as question answer strategy. It is developed by Socrates. He assumes that all knowledge within the learner and teacher has to unfold it. He assumes that teacher should present the subject matter in such a way that learner recognizes the truth and he can identify himself with it.
Socrates has suggested three steps in this strategy: (a) to prepare questions and arrange them in a sequence.
(b) to present the questions in appropriate way so that curosity may be created among the learners.
(c) to ask new questions by liking with the learner’s responses. Teacher is able to recognize the intention of learner and provides motivation accordingly.
It provides motivation and encouragement. It makes learners active in the classroom. It involves psychological principles of learning. It is more useful at primary and secondary level.
Its limitations are that it is mechanical startegy and limited to memory level in the classroom climate. It can’t be used in the teaching at higher classes.
(12) Problem Solving Method: it is a manner of dealing with that, which is problematic. A method involving clear defination of problems confronted, formation of hypothetical solutions or suggestion, deliberate test of hypothesis until evidence warrants its acceptance. this method is considered to be an excellent method since it develops skill and scientific attitude. Students become self dependent, self reliant and self confident.
But this is a long and slow process in which too much stress is laid on practical work. It presupposes that all the students are problem solvers. Pupils learn facts themselves. This is real education / learning. Acting in new situation is learnt. Curiosities of pupils are satisfied.
(13) Lecture Method: lecture lays emphasis on the presentation of the content. Teacher is more active and students are passive participants but he uses question answer technique to keep them attentive in the class. Teacher controls and plans for all acts of students. There are 5 steps: (a) preparation (b) presentation (c) comparison or association (d) generalization (e) application.
It is an economical teaching method. Very high order of cognitive objectives may be achieved by this method.
This method can be used in higher classes but it can not easily used in elementary classes. It can’t be used for achieving the pychomotor objectives and the highest order of effective objectives.
(1) Recitation Method: This is the most powerful technique for imprinting material on the mind and moving to longer term memory. A recitation is a discussion carried by a teaching assistant (TA) to supplement a lecture given by a senior faculty at an academic institution. During the recitation, TAs will review the lecture, expand on the concepts, and carry a discussion with the students. It bring you to full alertness. Cooperation is learned. Initiative is encouraged. Students are trained how to plan and report.
(2) Discussion Method: in this method a small group assembles to communicate with each other, using speaking, listening and nonverbal processes in order to achieve instructional objectives. There are group members, who have reciprocal influence over one another and they are affectdd by the behavior of one another. The participants use the available time to communicate with each other. It follows following principles of teaching (a) principle of active participation (b) principle of freedom for work (c) principle of group work and equal opportunities to ask question and to answer them.
(3) Demonstration Method: in demostration method teacher actually performs infront of students. Students observe while teacher explains the event and phenomenon. It helps in achieving psychomotor objectives. Any simple or complex skill becomes easy to understand. One of the Disadvantages is that only the attention of the learners is invited towards activity demonstarted but they are not free to discuss about it.
(4) Heuristics Method: the term Heuristics has been borrowed from the word Heurises, it means Discover or Investigate. The purpose of communication is to develop the tendency of investigation. Arm Strong is the exponent of this strategy. It is based upon the assumption of Herbert Spencer that the learner should be told as little as possible and he should be encouraged to learn himself as much as possible.
A problem is placed before the learners and they attempt to seek the solution of the problem. The learners get full freedom of working and thinking. The number of devices are used for solving the problem. It develops scientific attitude, tendency of observation, self confidence, self reliance, logical and imaginative thinking among the learner. It creates the situation for divergent thinking.
It suffers from the following limitations: it can not be used for lower classes. It is time consuming. It can not be used for dull or poor students even for higher classes. It can not be employed for a large number of students.
Headmaster Notes , Test Preparation Salient Features of National Education Policies
Council of Technical Education for pakistan would be established 1947
Compulsory Physical Education in Schools 1947
A Central Institute of Islamic Research would be established 1947
Advisory Board of Education would be established 1947
Inter University Board would be established 1947
A scheme would be prepared for the setting up of National Library and Museum in Pakistan 1947
Overseas Scholarship Scheme would be started 1947
Industrial Homes for Women would be established 1947
Possible use of Educational Broadcast and Educational Films would be made at all stages of education 1947
University Act / Ordinance would be Amended 1959
National Cadet Core would be established 1959
Pilot Schools Scheme would be introduced 1959
Comprehensive Schools Scheme would be introduced 1959
New Boards would be established at Peshawar, Hyderabad and Rajshahi 1959
Secondary Education would be Seperated From University Education 1959
University Grants Commission was proposed 1959
Text Boards for curriculum and text book improvement would be established 1959
Committee of Advanced Studies at each University would be established 1959
No New Government and Private Colleges would be started 1970
Participation of Students in Management of Institutes would be encouraged 1970
Divisions and Classes would be abolished 1970
Public Examination would he held at 7th, 10th, 11th and Degree classes 1970
No Fees would be charged to Children at Primary Schools and Girls would not pay any Fee at Middle Schools 1970
Five Seperate Administrative Establishments at Provincial Level Outside the Govermment Secretariat For School Education, College Education, Adult Education, Uni Education and Vocational Education would be established 1970
Universities would be Autonomous in Finance, Administration and Streamlinig of Internal Administration 1970
Academic Council and Senate at University Level would be established 1970
Book Boards for Books and Curricula Development would be established 1970
National Education Core would be established 1970
Mendatory Military Training for Girls and Boys ( students) 1972
Centres of Excellence in Universities would be established 1972
Inter University Board would be emerged in University Grants Commission 1972
Book Banks would be established 1972
New Universities would be established at Multan, Sakhar and Saidu Sharif 1972
New BISE would be established at Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, Bahawalpur, Khanpur and Saidu Sharif 1972
People’s Open University (AIOU) would be established 1972
Nationalization of Private Institutes 1972
Rooting up of Literacy was stressed 1972-80
Seperate Chapters on Elementary and Adult Education were discussed 1972-80
University Grants Commission would be established 1972
University Act / Ordinance would be Replaced 1972
National Service Core would be established 1972
National Institute of Pakistan Studies at Islamabad University would be established 1972
National Curriculum Bureau would be established 1972
National Book Foundation would be established 1972
National Research Fellowship would be introduced 1972
National Professorship Programme would be started 1972
National Sports Trust would be established 1972
National Students Centre would be established 1978
National Centre for Science Education would be established 1978
National Institute of Educational Research would be established 1978
National Council on Adult Education at AIOU would be established 1978
Guidance and Counciling Service would be introduced 1978
An Academy of Educational Planning and Management would be established 1978
National Educational Council would be established 1978
Bureau of Placement would be established 1978
Masjid Maktab School Scheme would be started 1978
School Uniform prescribed 1978
Mathematics would be introduced as a Compulsory Subject 1978
Shariah Faculty in Islamic University would be established 1978
Book Bank Scheme would be re casted 1978
Admission Committees would be constituted 1978
Modern Scientific Subjects would be introduced 1992
Quran Nazira would be started from Class 1 to 8 1992
Primary Directorates would be created at Federal and Provincial level 1992
Seperate Higher Education Service Policy would be formulated 1992
Liberal Grants would be provided to Universities 1992
Colleges of Distance Education in Provinces would be established 1992
Service/Education would be introduced 1992
School Management Committee would be established 1992
National Council of Academic Award would be established 1992
Academies of Educational Planning and Management would be established by Provincial Govt 1992
Academy of Educational Planning and Management would be strengthened 1992
Directorate of Colleges at Divisional Level would be established 1992
Mobile Teacher Training Units would be established 1992
Computer Education would be a Part of Curriculum at School Level 1992
Project of Basic Education Community Schools would be started 1998
Literacy Act would be implemented 1998
National Council of Technical Education would be established 1998
National Institute of Teacher Education (NITE) would be established 1998
Selected Disciplines at Major Universities would be Transformed into Centres of Advanced Studies and Research 1998
National Literacy Movement would be started 1998
National Testing Service would be started 1998
Education Service Commission would be established 1998
Education Cards to Needy Students would be provided 1998
Cluster Center Schools would be started 1998
Matric Tech in 10% Secondary Schools would be introduced 1998
Teacher Foundations in All Provinces would be established 1998
Multiple Text Books at Secondary School Level would be introduced 1998
Project Method of Teaching at Secondary Level would be initiated 1998
Assessment Items and Question Banks would be established 1998
Vocational Training Schools At District Headquarter would be opened 1998
Day Care Centres Near Schools would be opened 1998
Education Loan Scheme would be started 1998
Teacher Service Training Academy would be established 1998
One Year B.A Honours Course after B.A B.S.C would be introduced in all colleges 1998
Model Schools at Each District would be established 1998
New Disciplines Emerging Sciences in Public Universities would be established 1998
System of Assessment of Teacher’s Performance would be introduced 1998
Contract System for Teachers would be introduced 1998
Education Loan Scheme would be started 1998
Translation Houses at Provincial and Federal Level would be establishe 1998
Paper Schools would be abolished 1998
Radio and Television would be used for Literacy 1998
World of Work would be prepared 1998